As far as the current development situation is concerned, the main problems in the application of wind power engineering are as follows:
(1) The regional and seasonal nature of wind power is very strong. Not all wind farms can be built in all places, but wind energy-rich areas with high wind speeds and long durations are required. The seasonality of wind also leads to the variability and randomness of wind power output, and currently wind power can only play a “supporting role” in the entire power grid.
(2) Power grid impact problem. A large number of onshore and offshore wind farms will have a large impact on the existing power grid. These systemic problems include power supply quality, voltage management, grid stability, grid adaptability, and impact on other power plants. Emission control and efficiency reduction. Therefore, grid integration is an important technical issue. The main ways to solve the problem of wind power grid integration include the establishment of a flexible wind power grid connection mechanism, the development and application of power supply systems that introduce power management technology, the addition of energy storage systems, and power grid upgrades.
(3) The energy density of wind energy resources is small. The equipment requirements are higher, and the wind energy utilization efficiency is also lower.
(4) The stability of wind power generation cannot be guaranteed, uncontrollable and cannot be stored in large quantities.
(5) Wind power generation still has an impact on the ecological environment (the impact of wind farms on the environment). Mainly due to noise pollution caused by site construction and equipment, flickering shadows, visual pollution, affecting the movement of birds and causing environmental inconsistencies.
(6) The cost of wind farm construction and equipment installation is relatively high. At present, the cost of wind power is still much higher than that of traditional thermal power and hydropower.
(7) Economic and social issues. With the development of the economy, the improvement of people’s living standards, the increase of human’s demand for energy, and the increasingly prominent environmental pressure, wind power generation has developed by leaps and bounds. How to achieve sustainable development of wind power? In addition to considering the technical factors of wind power generation, it is also necessary to guide the development of wind power from the aspects of public awareness, economic management, policies and regulations. For large wind farm projects, an economic evaluation is required. Specifically, on the basis of the current national financial system and price system, analyze the financial benefits of the project, and examine the profitability and solvency of the project to judge its financial feasibility. For small-scale wind power projects invested by individuals, there is also the problem of economic evaluation. From the perspective of market economy, the full development of wind power is to improve the competitiveness of wind power and other conventional energy generation. Relevant government departments should make full use of market means, establish an electricity price linkage mechanism, and improve supporting policies and measures that affect the formation of wind power prices. On the one hand, subsidies can be given to enterprises that use wind power, just like the preferential tariff policy for desulfurization of thermal power enterprises, and an incentive mechanism can be established;
On the other hand, due to the large environmental cost of using conventional energy to generate electricity, traditional power companies can be levied ecological tax, carbon tax and other taxes to form a mechanism for fair competition in the power industry. This practice is not uncommon. In Denmark, for example, a carbon dioxide tax is levied on all traditional energy electric power generation, but tax rebates are applied to new energy sources such as wind power. At present, China’s wind power generation policy environment is getting better. China’s more favorable policies for wind power development include requirements for localization rate, full wind power grid connection, financial and tax support, and on-grid electricity price.